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学习投资,就像学习一门新的语言

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2019年10月08日

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Learning the basics of investing is like learning a new language. Whether discussing stocks, bonds, and other investment vehicles to structures, entities, and dollar cost averaging, it's no wonder many beginning investors feel like they're in uncharted waters. The good news is that once you have mastered the language and certain investing basics, you'll better understand how much of this works. To assist you on that journey, here is a look at the handful of the most common types of investments you will encounter in your lifetime.

学习投资的基本知识就像学习一门新的语言。从讨论股票、债券和其他投资工具到结构、实体和美元平均成本,难怪许多刚开始投资的人会感觉自己像身处未知的水域一样。好消息是,一旦你掌握了这门语言和某些投资基础知识,你就能很好地理解投资是怎么操作的了。下面是你一生中会遇到的几种最常见的投资类型:

Stocks

股票

Bonds

债券

Mutual Funds

共同基金

Real Estate

房地产

学习投资,就像学习一门新的语言

We'll also talk about a few other relevant topics, such as the legal entities - limited liability companies and limited partnerships - through which investors tend to make investments in things like hedge funds and private equity funds.

我们还将讨论其他一些相关的话题,比如法律实体——有限责任公司和有限合伙企业——投资者倾向于通过它们投资对冲基金和私募股权基金。

Stocks and Bonds

股票和债券

Without a doubt, owning stocks has been the best way historically to build wealth. And for more than a century, investing in bonds has been considered one of the safest ways to make money. But how do these investments work?

毫无疑问,持有股票是历史上积累财富的最佳方式。一个多世纪以来,投资债券被认为是最安全的赚钱方式之一。但这些投资是如何运作的呢?

Stocks are pretty simple: they're shares of ownership in a specific company. When you own a share of Apple, for example, you own a tiny piece of that company. Stock prices fluctuate with a company's fortunes, and also with the economy at large.

股票其实相当简单:它们是某一特定公司的所有权。例如,当你拥有苹果公司的股份时,你就拥有了该公司的一小部分。股票价格随着公司的财富和经济的波动而变化。

When you buy a bond, meanwhile, you are lending money to the company or institution that issued it. In the case of a school bond, for instance, you are lending money to the school district to build a new high school or improve classroom conditions. Buying a bond issued by a company means you're lending money to that company, which it can use to grow the business.

与此同时,当你购买债券时,你是在借钱给发行债券的公司或机构。例如,以学校债券为例,当你购买时,你就把钱借给学区了,用来修建一所新的高中或改善教室条件。购买一家公司发行的债券意味着你把钱借给了这家公司,它可以用来发展业务。

Investing in Mutual Funds

投资共同基金

One of the most popular ways to own stocks and/or bonds is through mutual funds. In fact, most people are statistically less likely to own individual investments than they are shares of companies through mutual funds held in their 401(k) or Roth IRA.

持有股票和(或)债券最流行的方式之一是通过共同基金。事实上,从统计数据来看,大多数人不太可能拥有个人投资,他们通常通过401(k)或Roth IRA(退休金账户)中的共同基金持有公司股票。

学习投资,就像学习一门新的语言

Mutual funds offer many benefits to investors, particularly to beginners who are just mastering investing basics. They're pretty easy to understand and allow you to diversify your investments over more companies. However, mutual funds also have a few serious drawbacks: they charge fees, which can eat into your profits, and they may boost your tax bill, even in a year when you don't sell shares.

共同基金为投资者带来许多好处,特别是对刚刚掌握投资基础知识的初学者而言。它们非常容易理解,而且还允许你在更多的公司中分散投资。然而,共同基金也有一些严重的缺点:他们要收取费用,这可能会减少你的利润;他们还可能会增加你的税收,即使是在你不出售股票的一年内。

Real Estate Investments

房地产投资

The world is full of people who are convinced that real estate is the only investment that makes sense. Whether you subscribe to that philosophy or not, there are more ways than ever to add real estate to your portfolio.

世界上到处都是那些相信房地产是唯一有意义的投资的人。不管你认同与否,现在有比以往任何时候都多的方法来在你的投资组合中加上房地产。

Yes, you can buy a home for yourself, or properties to rent. But you also can purchase a security called a real estate investment trust (REIT), which combines the benefits of stocks with the tangible property of land, shopping malls, apartment buildings, or almost anything else you can imagine.

是的,你可以买来自己居住,也可以出租给别人。你也可以购买一种名为房地产投资信托的证券,它把股票的收益与土地、商场、公寓楼或几乎任何你能想到的有形资产结合起来。

Investing Structures and Entities

投资结构和实体

When you move beyond stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and real estate, you encounter different types of investment entities. For example, millions of people will never own a share of stock or a bond. Instead, they invest their money in a family business, such a restaurant, retail shop, or rental property. Yes, these are businesses, but you also should consider them investments, and treat them accordingly.

除了股票、债券、共同基金和房地产之外,你还会遇到不同类型的投资实体。例如,数百万人将永远不会持有股票或债券。相反,他们把钱投资于家族企业,比如餐馆、零售店或出租物业。是的,这些都是企业商家,但你也应该考虑他们的投资,并相应地对待他们。

学习投资,就像学习一门新的语言

More experienced investors likely will invest in hedge funds or private equity funds at some point in their life, while others will buy shares of publicly traded limited partnerships through their broker. These special legal structures can have big tax implications for you, and it is important you understand how investing through them can both benefit, and potentially harm your pocketbook.

经验丰富的投资者可能在一生中的某个时候会投资对冲基金或私募股权基金,而其他人则通过经纪人购买公开交易的有限合伙企业的股票。这些特殊的法律结构可能会给你带来很大的税务影响。所以弄明白在此之下的投资是如何盈利的、又有什么风险,就非常重要。

Investing in a Bad Economy

经济不景气时的投资

It's the nature of the world that sometimes bad things happen. When they happen to your investments or savings, you don't need to panic. Sometimes, you need to take a hit before you can make some money again, and holding on until the recession ends is the best plan.

世事难测,当你在投资或储蓄上出现问题时,不必恐慌。有时候,你需要先被打击一次,然后才能再赚些钱。坚持到经济衰退结束,才是最好的计划。


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